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11th International Conference on Virology and Microbiology, will be organized around the theme “An Insight on Advances in Virology and Infectious Diseases”

Virology Congress 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Virology Congress 2018

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Microbial Biotechnology is the branch of microbiology that deals with the technological application that uses microbiological systems, microbial organisms or derivatives, thereof to make or modify products or processes for specific use. The techniques involved in microbial biotechnology are replica plating, conjugation, transformation, transduction, mutagenesis etc. Microbes are suited for studying genetics and made a huge contribution in the field of genetic engineering.

  • Track 1-1Microbial Biochemistry
  • Track 1-2Microbial Biochemistry
  • Track 1-3Microbial Genetics
  • Track 1-4Microbial nanotechnology

Parasitology is the study of biological parasites and parasitic diseases, involve the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of parasites which includes the host response to agents. Parasites are the organisms that exists or present in the another organism and survive by feeding off host it means that a parasite is an organism which is metabolically dependent on another organism for its survival. It traditionally includes the study of three major groups of animals that are parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminthes (worms), and arthropods it may directly cause the diseases or acts as vectors of various pathogens.

 

  • Track 2-1Medical parasitology
  • Track 2-2Veterinary parasitology
  • Track 2-3Structural parasitology
  • Track 2-4Quantitative parasitology
  • Track 2-5Host-Parasite associations and effects
  • Track 2-6Host-Parasite associations and effects

The way viruses reproduce in their host cells makes them particularly susceptible to the genetic changes that help to drive their evolution. The RNA viruses are especially prone to genetic changes. In host cells there are mechanisms for correcting mistakes when DNA replicates and these kick in whenever cells divide. The genetic material inside the virus plays a major role in how rapidly a virus mutates, which in turn can impact how the illness can spread in the population. Viruses that replicate through DNA use the same mechanisms the host cell uses to create its own DNA. Many viruses (for example, influenza A virus) can shuffle their genes with other viruses when two identical strains infect the same cell. This phenomenon is called genetic shift.

  • Track 3-1Complex molecule of protein and nucleic acid
  • Track 3-2DNA or RNA of viruses
  • Track 3-3Evolved from plasmids
  • Track 3-4Molecular evolution
  • Track 3-5Evolutionary developmental virology
  • Track 3-6Viral immunotherapy

Viral epidemiology is the branch of medical science that deals with the frequency and spread of viruses in populations over time. It is used to break the chain of infection in populations during outbreaks of viral diseases. Host, virus and environmental factors are monitored to determine the dynamics of viral infections, the ultimate goal of which is to devise intervention strategies. Transmission of viruses can be vertical, means from mother to child (or) horizontal, means from person to person. The rate of transmission of viral infections depends on factors that include population density, the number of susceptible individuals, the quality of healthcare and the weather.

  • Track 4-1Genomic sequences
  • Track 4-2Zoonotic Transmission
  • Track 4-3Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

The process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. These viral particles, also known as virions. These are very small and only visible using the electron microscope. Virus particles consist of genetic material enclosed in a capsid. This can be used to categorise viruses: DNA viruses, RNA viruses (or) retroviruses. Animal viruses may have an outer phospholipid-based layer. Many viruses have special attachment proteins projecting from their capsid.

 

  • Track 5-1virions
  • Track 5-2protein coat: Capsid

Molecular virology is the study of viruses on a molecular level. Viruses are sub-microscopic parasites that replicate inside host cells. Pure Microbiology provides a broad platform of a large plethora of research and more new insights into different areas of Molecular biology. Molecular genetics has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology. Molecular techniques are used to theorize historical attributes of populations (or) species, as in fields in evolutionary biology like population genetics and Phylogenetics.

  • Track 6-1Molecular genetics
  • Track 6-2Replication, transcription, translation
  • Track 6-3Phylogenetics
  • Track 6-4Molecular cloning

 

Paleovirology is the term used to describe the study of viruses which cannot leave behind physical fossils. Virion structural protein derived from the amino-terminal domain of the Gag polyprotein. Phylogenetic analysis of Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) across multiple host species exhibit novel information about the evolution of diverse virus groups. EVEs have been adopted as inhibitors of viral infection. Structural restraint in exogenous viruses may lead to the decoupling of short and long-term rates of viral evolution. Permineralization is a process of fossilization that occurs when an organism is buried.

 

  • Track 7-1Physical fossils
  • Track 7-2Endogenous retroviruses
  • Track 7-3Non-retroviral Integrated RNA Virus
  • Track 7-4Germline cells

Viral infection occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and virions attach to and enter susceptible cells. Viral infection is usually detected by clinical monitoring, for instance severe muscle and joint pains preceding fever, skin rash. Laboratory tests are not directly effective in detecting viral infections, because they do not themselves increase the white blood cell count. Laboratory investigation may be useful in diagnosing associated bacterial infections. Viral infections are commonly of limited duration.

  • Track 8-1Pathogenic viruses
  • Track 8-2DNA viruses
  • Track 8-3RNA genome
  • Track 8-4primary pathogens

Viruses are Intracellular obligate parasites that they cannot replicate their genes without the help of a living cell. Certain proteins on the virus particle must fit particular receptor sites on the particular host cell surface. Host cell provides the energy & system for the synthesis of viral proteins & nucleic acids. The cell membrane of the host cell infolds the virus particle, enclosing it in a pinocytotic vacoule. Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop only in cytoplasm.

  • Track 9-1viral protein synthesis
  • Track 9-2mRNA synthesis
  • Track 9-3viral messenger RNA
  • Track 9-4RNA replicase enzymes
  • Track 9-5Virion assembly

Human Papillomavirus Infection (HPV) is caused by human papillomavirus, it is a DNA virus from the family Papillomavirus. More than 40 types of infections are transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anus and genitals. Risk factors for insistent HPV infections include early age of first sexual intercourse, multiple partners, smoking, and poor Immune function. HPV is typically spread by sustained direct skin-to-skin contact with vaginal and anal sex being the most common methods. Occasionally, it can spread from a mother to her baby during pregnancy. It does not spread via common items like toilet seats. People can become infected with more than one type of HPV. HPV only affects humans.

  • Track 10-1Precancerous lesions
  • Track 10-2Poor immune function
  • Track 10-3Papanicolaou test
  • Track 10-4stratified epithelial tissue

Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells. These can have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope. In divergence, polyclonal antibodies bind to multiple epitopes and made by several different plasma cell lineages. These antibodies are secreted by different B cell lineages and are used for autoimmune diseases. Antigen prompts the B-lymphocytes to produce IgG Immunoglobulin’s.About 24 million people in the United States are affected by an autoimmune disease.

  • Track 11-1Hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT)
  • Track 11-2Hybridoma technology
  • Track 11-3Apoptosis
  • Track 11-4Autoimmune diseases

Plaques are clear zones formed in a lawn of cells due to lysis by phage. Lysogens begin to grow in the middle of the plaque, giving the plaque a turbid. The morphology of the plaque depends upon the phage, the host, and the growth conditions. Virus quantification is counting the number of viruses in a particular volume to determine the virus concentration. The plaque assay can be used to refine a clonal population of virus. The revolution that took place in the field of molecular biology allowed the genetic information encoded in nucleic acids of viruses which enables viruses to reproduce.

  • Track 12-1cell culture
  • Track 12-2Host strain
  • Track 12-3Bacteriophage viruses
  • Track 12-4Lysogenic phages

An Oncolytic virus is a virus that specially infects and kills cancer cells. Viral oncology is concerned with treatment of human cancers / tumors with virus particles. Certainly, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be dynamic, with new significant and original studies on viral Oncogenesis and as a translational research from virology for the treatment of cancer.

  • Track 13-1Tumorigenic infections
  • Track 13-2Oncolysis
  • Track 13-3Stimulate host anti-tumour immune response
  • Track 13-4Oncology Drug Advisory Committee

The hepatitis C virus particle consists of a core of genetic material (RNA) enclosed by an icosahedral protective shell of protein, and further covered in a lipid envelope of cellular origin. The p7 protein is nonessential for viral genome replication but plays a critical role in virus morphogenesis. This protein is a 63 amino acid membrane spanning protein which locates itself in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  • Track 14-1Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Track 14-2Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Track 14-3Elevated liver enzyme levels
  • Track 14-4HCV antibody enzyme immunoassay or ELISA

Plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. These are pathogenic to higher plants. The first virus to be discovered was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Viruses cause an estimated US$60 billion loss in crop yields worldwide every year. Aquatic bacteriophages are viruses that live as obligate parasitic agents in marine bacteria such as cyanobacteria. Aquatic micro-organisms are able to prepare their own food through Photosynthesis.

 

  • Track 15-1Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
  • Track 15-2Transmission of plant viruses
  • Track 15-3Mycology
  • Track 15-4Plant virus epidemiology, ecology and evolution

Neurotropic viruses are said to be Neuroinvasive if it is capable of entering the nervous system and Neurovirulent if it is capable of causing disease within the nervous system. Neurotropic viruses have been reported to lead to various neurodegenerative diseases. Both terms are usually applied to central nervous system infections, but some neurotropic viruses are highly Neuroinvasive for the peripheral nervous system. Infection by Neurotropic viruses irreversibly disrupt the function of the CNS. 

  • Track 16-1Central and peripheral nervous system
  • Track 16-2Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
  • Track 16-3Receptor tyrosine kinase

Anti-virulence is the concept of blocking virulence factors, which are produced by viruses and enable them to achieve inhibition of the host’s immune response. These factors are used to promote colonization of the host. A major group of virulence factors are proteins that can control the activation levels of GTPases. Nowadays various virostatics targeting various viral replication steps are approved to treat critical infectious viral diseases. Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface.

  • Track 17-1Blocking virulence factors
  • Track 17-2Immunoglobulin (Ig) proteases
  • Track 17-3Endotoxins and Exotoxins

Viruses are obligatory and intracellular parasites, smallest known infectious agents they infect animals, plants, insects and also bacteria. Virology Research which covers all aspects of theoretical and practical research of viruses. Many of viruses are characterized according to their size and their resistance to chemical or physicals agents and pathogenic affects. Current research in virology includes the study of mechanism of HIV replication and Diseases.

  • Track 18-1Antigen-antibody reactions
  • Track 18-2Stem cell therapy
  • Track 18-3Bone marrow and stem cell transplantation
  • Track 18-4Clinical or therapeutic virology

It is the study of how biological viruses cause diseases in hosts. Mostly diseases caused by the replication of virus. Viral pathogenesis is the series of actions by which viral infections leads to deadly viral diseases as a result of implantation, replication, spread to disease prone sites and shedding of virus into the environment. Effective facilitated factors leads affect pathogenic events includes accessibility of virus with tissue, cell susceptibility for virus multiplication and susceptibility of virus to respective host defenses. In addition natural selection also favors the dominance of low-virulence for most of the virus strains.

  • Track 19-1Implantation
  • Track 19-2Endothelial cells
  • Track 19-3Low-virulence virus strains

Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology in which viruses convert into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases. There are different branches in Virotherapy like Oncolytic Virotherapy, viral gene therapy, viral immunotherapy. Viral immunotherapy uses viruses to introduce specific antigens to the patient's immune system. These antigens could be from any species of viruses. In Oncolytic Virotherapy Oncolytic viruses mainly target and lyse the cancerous cells.

  • Track 20-1Oncolytic Virotherapy
  • Track 20-2Viral vectors for gene therapy
  • Track 20-3Angiogenesis

Microbial Pathogenesis focuses on the origin and development of human diseases with an emphasis on microbial agents and molecular mechanisms of host response and immune function. Molecular pathogenesis include viral replication and transformation, intracellular signalling and oncogene expression. Molecular cloning has allowed the isolation of single or group of genes related to phenotypes which appear to be immunologically important for pathogenesis.

  • Track 21-1Molecular mechanisms used by microorganisms
  • Track 21-2Multi-cellular hosts
  • Track 21-3RNA synthesis
  • Track 21-4Aggressive melanoma cell line

Drug-drug interactions occur when a drug interacts with another drug and modify the way one or both of the drugs act in the body, or cause side effects. Hepatitis E has become a significant public health concern, as well as sporadic cases of acute hepatitis in developed countries. It is nothing but infection of the liver which is caused by different viruses such as hepatitis A to hepatitis E. Hepatitis E virus is still considered an emerging pathogen in developing countries.

  • Track 22-1Drug-drug interactions
  • Track 22-2Mechanism of HIV replication
  • Track 22-3CD4 cells of the immune system
  • Track 22-4Antiretroviral therapy
  • Track 23-1Pathogens and the host immune defences
  • Track 23-2Innate and acquired immunity
  • Track 23-3Interaction of antigens
  • Track 24-1Antimicrobial resistance
  • Track 24-2Public health issues
  • Track 24-3Unhygienic conditions
  • Track 25-1Atopic dermatitis
  • Track 25-2Acne vulgaris
  • Track 25-3Onychomycosis
  • Track 25-4Psoriasis or skin break out
  • Track 26-1Rhinorrhea or pharyngitis
  • Track 26-2Respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV)
  • Track 26-3Influenza (flu) infection
  • Track 26-4Haemophilus influenzae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  • Track 26-5Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Infection is the capture of an organism's body tissues by disease causing agents and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. In childhood viral infections are rarely fatal, and are almost never serious. Infectious diseases in infants are caused by infectious agents like viruses, bacteria, nematodes, arthropods such as ticks, fungi like ringworm, and other macro parasites. Specific medications are used to treat Pediatric infections like antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoal, and anthelminthic.

 

  • Track 27-1Congenital defects
  • Track 28-1Haemorrhagic cystitis
  • Track 28-2Viral pathogens
  • Track 28-3Genitourinary tract infections
  • Track 28-4Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
  • Track 28-5Kidney infections
  • Track 29-1Mosquito-borne diseases
  • Track 29-2Autochthonous transmission
  • Track 29-3Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): caused by Arbovirus
  • Track 29-4Leishmaniasis
  • Track 30-1Opportunistic infections
  • Track 30-2Highly active Antiretroviral therapy
  • Track 30-3HIV reverse transcriptase
  • Track 30-4Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
  • Track 30-5Reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors
  • Track 31-1Chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis
  • Track 31-2Chronic diseases: Heart diseases, cancer and diabetes
  • Track 31-3Genetic disorders
  • Track 31-4A tobacco free world
  • Track 32-1pneumonia
  • Track 32-2Tested for antibodies
  • Track 32-3Culture of Microorganisms
  • Track 32-4Resistance to drugs
  • Track 32-5Genetic testing
  • Track 33-1Suppresses virus
  • Track 33-2vaccine preventable diseases (VPD)
  • Track 33-3Antimicrobial prophylaxis
  • Track 33-4Viricides
  • Track 33-5Organic acids
  • Track 33-6Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda):Antifungal

Vaccine is a biological preparation that provides Active acquired immunity to a specific disease. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. There are different types of vaccines which contain Inactivated micro-organisms (polio vaccine), attenuated micro-organisms (BCG vaccine), Inactivated Toxic compounds. Vaccines can interfere when two or more vaccines mixed together. Varicella vaccine is rarely associated with complications in Immuno deficient individuals.

  • Track 34-1polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine
  • Track 34-2Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine
  • Track 34-3Toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria
  • Track 34-4Prophylactic